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Wheat Farming Guide

A successful plantation planted using the best wheat fertilizer in the country - safi sarvi

Are you looking to venture into wheat farming but do not know where to start? Do you already have a wheat farm but are unsure whether it will be profitable? If the answer is yes, you have come to the right place. Do not hesitate to reach out to us for our agronomist services.

Wheat farming in the country is done in Narok, Uasin Gishu, Nyanyuki, and Trans Nzonia. These places are preferred because of their ecological zones. The main planting season for wheat is the beginning of February and early April. Wheat is an important cash crop in the country because it is the main ingredient used to make baked products such as bread, and cooking flour.

To succeed as a wheat farmer, you must, first of all, identify a suitable location. After identifying an ideal location, prepare the land, seedbed, and add fertilizer. At the same time, keep an eye out for diseases that can destroy the farm. 

Tips for Preparing the Wheat Farm

Farmers should plant wheat in highland areas because of their cool temperature. Cool temperatures are ideal because they enable the plants to accumulate lots of starch, resulting in high yields. When the crop is planted in low-altitude areas, it is likely to suffer from moisture stress, resulting in decreased yields.

Once you have identified a suitable piece of land, the second stage would be to till it until weeds are destroyed. The number of times you till will depend on the soil type, amount of weeds on the farm, and elevation.

Farmers growing wheat in low-altitude areas need to develop moisture conservation strategies to protect the farm from low yields. One way to conserve moisture is to use an organic fertilizer that increases the moisture retention rate of the soil.

How to increase moisture on the farm

An example of such fertilizer is Safi Sarvi. This carbon-negative fertilizer has been scientifically proven to increase farmers’ income by more than 50%. It can do this because its chemical composition nourishes the soil, increasing yields by up to 30%.

Another strategy that farmers can use to conserve moisture is to ensure that the farm is free of weeds. When the farm has weeds, the evaporation rate is higher. Some of the chemicals that can be used to kill weeds include paraquat and glyphosate.

Lastly, avoid using a disc plow to conserve water on the farm. Instead, We advise farmers to use a chisel plow. A chisel plow is better because it loosens the soil leaving enough space for water to infiltrate, increasing yields. Farmers should not use disc Ploughs because they cause poor soil structure and low water infiltration rate.

Seedbed preparation

The seedbed should be prepared at least two months before the planting date. For example, if you plan to plant in January, then the seedbed should be tilled by November. During November and December, the farm should be free of weeds. In addition, the soil should be tested for pathogens and any nutrient deficiencies.

Soil test services are essential because they enable the farmer to know if their soil is infected or not. If the soil is infected, the farmer can take remedial actions before the disease destroys the entire farm. Soil test services are also necessary because the farmer will know whether crucial nutrients are in the soil. 

Application of Wheat Fertilizer

Before planting wheat, you need to ensure that the land is fertilized. Of course, this should be done based on a soil analysis report. Some of the important nutrients are:


Nitrogen is one of the best wheat fertilizer that can be used as a top dresser. It is essential because it increases the size and number of tillers, increasing yields. In addition, nitrogen also promotes photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process in which plants transform light energy into chemical energy. Chemical energy enables plants to convert water and other minerals into organic compounds they can feed on.


Zinc is important because it improves grain quality. As a result, the crop becomes easy to sell because of its good quality. Zinc fertilizer is also important because it increases water consumption. This is especially useful if your farm has water shortages. The nutrient is also responsible for ensuring healthy roots.


It is important to understand that, unlike other fertilizers, phosphorus does not freely move in the soil. For this reason, it should be added to the soil during the planting phase. Phosphorus should also be added during the planting phases because it promotes the formation of healthier seeds and faster maturity. 


Potassium helps wheat grow taller and become stronger. If the crop has been planted in windy areas, potassium will help develop strong roots, ensuring the plant is not blown away by strong winds.

Wheat Seeding and Seed Rate

Farmers should ensure that an optimal seed rate per acre is achieved. Under seeding can create an opportunity for weeds to thrive because they will consume essential nutrients from the soil. As a result, the farmer might realize decreased yields. Similarly, if a higher seed rate is used, there is a high likelihood that the wheat grains will be shriveled, reducing their quality. 

The best seed rate per hectare is 125 kilograms. This figure can vary based on the seed variety’s tillering capability and the seedbed’s condition. The recommended seed depth should be 2-3 centimeters. Deeper depths can result in the seeds failing to emerge on time, reducing yields. 

When seeding, farmers should avoid wet soil {moist soil is ok}. This is because wet soil can reduce germination because of poor soil aeration. Seeding should also not be done on dry soil because if the rains delay, the seeds can die, resulting in losses. 

Best Wheat Planting Months

As Global warming continues to change rain patterns around the world, it is increasingly becoming difficult to predict when to plant wheat and other crops. However, we can always use historical experiences to our advantage.

If wheat is being planted in Uasin Gishu, farmers can start planting in April – May. If the farm is in Meru, Timau, the best planting time should be February – March. Other recommended dates are:

  • Nakuru county, Njoro – April to May
  • Nakuru county, Bahati- April to May
  • Nakuru county, Molo- June to July
  • Nakuru county, Mau Narok- June to August
  • Upper Narok- June to August
  • Lower Narok – February to March

Challenges of Wheat Farming

The main challenge of wheat farming in Kenya is acidic soils that affect almost all major wheat-growing areas. It is for this reason that farmers should plant acid-tolerant wheat varieties. Acidic soils are caused by several factors, such as the continuous use of industrial chemicals and the burning of wheat.

If your farm is acidic, you can use an organic fertilizer such as Safi Sarvi or apply agricultural lime at the rate of 5 tonnes per hectare. Agricultural lime should also be applied at least once every four years.

Copper deficiency

Apart from acidic soils, wheat farming is also affected by copper deficiency. The nutrient copper is vital because it promotes a good seed set, increasing yields. Copper deficiency results in a reduced seed set which reduces yields. This deficiency is mainly experienced in Mau Narok, Njoro, Menengai, and Rongai wheat-growing areas.

To rectify this problem, wheat seeds should be coated with a chemical known as copper oxychloride. Copper oxychloride should be applied at the rate of 1kg for every 100kg of seeds that will be planted. After planting the seeds, copper oxychloride should be added as a foliar spray when applying herbicide to the farm.

The Seed Drill

Seeding should be done using a seed drill. A seed drill is a mechanical device that sows seeds in the soil while at the same time burying them as it is pulled by a tractor. A seed drill can be set to sow the seeds at a specific depth and rate. 

As the wheat grows, it will be affected by weeds. So which are some of the best weed control measures that can be used?

Weed Control in Wheat Farming

A weed is any plant that grows where it is not needed. For example, when you plant wheat and Rye grass grows on that same piece of land, then Ryegrass is a weed. Weeds must be removed because they attract diseases and compete for nutrients with the cash crop.

One weed control measure that can be used is the use of herbicides. When buying a herbicide, ensure you buy a selective herbicide so that you dont end up killing wheat. Non-selective herbicides kill all plants that have been grown on the farm.

To effectively remove weeds, farmers should use pre-emergent and post-emergent herbicides. A pre-emergent herbicide is used before the wheat is planted. This kills all weeds and reduces the chances of more weeds emerging during the growing phase. After planting, farmers can use post-emergence herbicides, which will curtail the growth of weeds during the growing period. 

Some of the herbicides that are used in wheat farming are:

  • Traxos: Used to control broad leaf weeds
  • Fagilia SL: This is a non -selective herbicide
  • Ariane: This herbicide is used to control broad-leaved weeds in cereals such as green grams
  • Her skill: Used to control perennial and annual weeds
  • Kiboko Super: Used to control annual grass weeds 

Wheat Farming Diseases and Pests

A serious wheat farmer must be conversant with diseases that can destroy their crops. Failure to identify some of these wheat diseases can result in heavy losses. One wheat disease that every farmer should know about is Stem rust.

Stem Rust Wheat Disease

Stem rust disease affects the head, stems, and leaves of wheat crops. The disease causes red-brown blisters, which creates the impression that there are tears on the leaves. Stem rust is caused by a fungus called Puccinia Graminia, which requires a living host to survive.

Stem rust disease is best controlled during the early stages of the infection. To control the disease, farmers will have to apply a herbicide. 

Septoria Disease

Septoria diseases include glum blotch and septoria leaf disease. The disease attacks the head and leaves of the wheat crop. When the disease affects the leaves, the leaves will have a brown necrotic lesion.

If it affects the head, the crop will have light shrivelled kernels. The easiest way to control septoria diseases is to use disease-free seeds and to practice crop rotation after harvest. Crop rotation should be done with suitable plants such as beans and canola.

Leaf Rust Disease

Leaf Rust disease only affects the leaves, and farmers can identify it by observing the leaves. If the leaves have orange-brown spores, then the crop is infected by leaf rust disease. The best way to control this disease is to plant a leaf rust-resistant variety. Also, a foliar fungicide should be applied immediately after the disease is identified.


Most farmers do not know this, but termites are just as dangerous as wheat diseases. This is because they can destroy roots and stems, resulting in the wheat drying up. Termites are especially problematic on rural farms. The most common sign of a termite attack is wilting, which later results in death.

If the dead crops are uprooted, agronomists should see thin sheets of soil on the ground as evidence of termite activity. The best way to control termites is to plow the land thoroughly.

Another pest you need to be aware of is the caterpillar. Caterpillar damage is characterized by cut stems at the base of young seedlings. If a caterpillar attacks the farm, there will be an open patch on the field, free of crops. A closer investigation of the soil should also reveal the presence of caterpillars.

Get In Touch With Our Agronomy Services

If you want long-term wheat storage tips or advice on making your wheat farming business thrive, do not hesitate to get in touch for a free consultative session. We have a team of expert agronomists around the country who will guide you on your farming venture.


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